Demography has its own clearly defined object of study, which is a population. Demography studies the size, territorial distribution and composition of population, the patterns of its changes on the basis of social, economic, as well as biological and geographical factors.
The aggregation unit in demography is a person who has many characteristics: gender, age, marital status, education, occupation, ethnic origin, etc. Many of these qualities change throughout life. Therefore, the population always has such characteristics as the number and age-gender structure, marital status. A change in the life of every person leads to population changes.
Since the moment Kazakhstan gained sovereignty, the demographic processes have become very dynamic. In the early 90s, these processes took shape against the background of socio-economic crisis and had negative character. Demographic crisis and depopulation became realities for our country, and the problem of demographic development became one of the most urgent.
Children aged 0-17 make up almost a third of the population of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Demographic processes directly depend on characteristics that determine the situation of children in the country, and this must be taken into account when collecting data, analyzing them and developing political decisions based on them.
The fundamental indicators of demographic statistics include, first of all, the number and composition of the population, the number of births, deaths, marriages, and divorces, the number of country arrivals and departures, as well as the number of internal migrants at the country and at the regional levels. Based on them, derivative and calculated indicators are formed, which allow comprehensive characterization of the population’s structure and movement, and also understanding of socio-demographic processes.