Employment of Youth
According to the WHO definition, adolescence is a period of growth and development that follows after childhood and lasts until adulthood, that is, from 10 to 19 years. This is one of the critical transition periods of the life cycle, which is characterized by rapid growth and changes that are second only to growth rates and changes occurring in infancy. Many aspects of this growth and development are driven by biological processes, and puberty marks the transition from childhood to adolescence. Over the past century, this period has undergone numerous changes that relate to the earlier onset of puberty, the later age of marriage, urbanization, global communication and changes in sexual relations and behaviors.
WHO emphasizes that adolescence is a period of preparation for adulthood, which is characterized by a number of key aspects in development. In addition to physical and sexual development, these aspects include promotion of social and economic independence, as well as personal development, acquisition of skills necessary for establishing relationships and fulfilling roles in adulthood, and formation of abstract thinking ability. Adolescence is a time of rapid growth and enormous potential, but simultaneously is a time of significant risks, when social context has a powerful influence.
In December 2016, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child published general comment No. 20 “On the implementation of the rights of the child during adolescence,” which notes that the potential of adolescents is largely unfulfilled, because the States parties do not recognize or invest in the measures needed for them to enjoy their rights. Data disaggregated by age, sex and disability are not available in most countries to inform policy, identify gaps and support the allocation of appropriate resources for adolescents. Generic policies designed for children or young people often fail to address adolescents in all their diversity and are inadequate to guarantee the realization of their rights. The costs of inaction and failure are high: the foundations laid down during adolescence in terms of emotional security, health, sexuality, education, skills, resilience and understanding of rights will have profound implications, not only for their individual optimum development, but also for present and future social and economic development.
Temporary employment is a solution to the problem of employment in adolescence and, accordingly, is a serious factor in prevention of neglect and delinquency. Employment gives an adolescent the opportunity not only to earn money, but also to become responsible and independent in decision-making.
Today, most adolescents begin to work from the age of 14. It’s quite difficult to find a suitable vacancy at this age, especially since not all organizations agree to accept a minor employee.
A minor employee may perform work exclusively in the time spare from lessons and classes, as well as on days of student vacations, and in the time that could be devoted to work is strictly limited by law. In addition, according to the law, individuals who are under the age of 18 must not work in difficult and harmful conditions, carry out business trips and dangerous assignments that can cause harm to health, they cannot work overtime, and so on.